Clas 10 CBSE GEOGRAPHY FREE NOTES

CHAPTER 1 Resources and Development
Question 1. Examine the three major problems created as a result of indiscriminate utilization of natural resources.

The following are the three major problems created as a result of indiscriminate utilization of natural resources.
Depletion of resources at a faster rate.
Accumulation of resources in the hands of few creating a wide gap between the haves (rich) and have nots (poor).
Increase in global crises like ozone layer depletion, global warming, pollution and land degradation


Question 2. Mention any three features of arid soil.

The following are the three features of arid soils.
The colour of the arid soil ranges from red to brown.
Arid soils are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
The soils lack humus and moisture because of dry climate, high|emperature and fast evaporation.
The lower parts of the soils are occupied by kankar because of high calcium content. It restricts the infiltration of water in lower layers.(Any Three)

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Question 3. How can you contribute to minimize the pollution? Explain. We can contribute to minimizing pollution by
creating awareness about not burning fallen leaves or garbage in the parks or on the roads.
requesting our parents and the people in the neighbourhood not to dump garbage in the ponds, rivers and other waterbodies, especially, while performing rituals.
not polluting the water storage tanks at home

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Question 4. Explain the role of humans in resource development. The process of transformation of things into resource involves an inter-dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions.

Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate the pace of economic development. Human beings are essential components of resources as they transform materials in the environment into resources and use them

CHAPTER 2 Agriculture
Question. Describe the various technological and institutional reforms, which led to Green and White revolutions in India?

Answer : Green Revolution.

(i) Technical inputs resulted in the green revolution in sixties and seventies of the twentieth century.

(ii) High yielding and early maturing variety of seeds have been used.

(iii) Instead of bio-fertilizers, chemical fertilizers are used. (iv) Flooding of fields are replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers. White Revolution.

(i) The Dairy Development led to the white revolution or “Operation Flood”.

(ii) The dairy co-operation in the rural areas helped in rural development.

(iii) The National Milk Grid achieved Operation Flood.

(iv) Cross breed from foreign and native cattle have been developed.

Question . What steps should be done to improve the present state of agriculture in India?

Answer : (i) More and more use of high yielding and early maturing variety of seeds.

(ii) Large scale use of chemical fertilizers. (iii) Bio-fertilizers as a supplement.

(iv) Improved irrigation facilities.

(v) Use of radio and television by farmers to know new improved techniques of agriculture.

(vi) Cosolidation of holdings of land. (vii) Crop insurance. (viii) Availability of loans.

(ix) Government should ensure minimum price for the crop.

Question . What is implied by ‘Operation Flood’? How can it supplement the meager income of the small and marginal farmers?

Answer : Operation Flood is another name given to White Revolution. Due to Green Revolution, India has become the largest producer of milk in the world. The Dairy development has contributed to household nutritional security and increase in income. The progress in this field has resulted in the balanced development in the status of marginal farmers having livestock.
Question . Describe the rice cultivation in India? Answer : (i) Rice is grown on about 25% of the total cropped area and provide food to about 50% of the population of India.

(ii) Being a tropical crop, rice requires high temperature and maximum humidity.

(iii) The average temperature should be about 24º C and average rain fall of 100 cm. (iv) In Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh rice is grown with the help of irrigation.

(v) The major producer of rice are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Question .‘Despite the Green Revolution, the food production has started to show a declining trend;. How? Answer : (i) In past 50 years, production of the food grain has increased from 51 MT to 209 MT.

(ii) There is rapid increase in population in India, requires food grain, pulses, oil seeds and vegetable.

(iii) There is surplus food grains but 26% of population in India are below poverty line.

(iv) There are reduction of net sown area under foodgrains due to gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to fruit, cash crops and vegetables.

(v) With declining food production and increasing population may disrupt the future food security.

(vi) The food production in 2000-01 was 199 million tones (MT)

Question .What is the new technology in agriculture? Describe its significance in the development of Indian agriculture with three examples?

Answer : To achieve the goal of green revolution, there must be increase in production of food grains.This can be done by using high yielding variety of seeds, adopting modern methods of irrigation, large scale use of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, electrification and mechanization

. Question .Name the two main food crops of India. Mention three major producing areas of each crop? Answer : (i) Rice : – (a) West Bengal (b) Kerala (c) Punjab

(ii) Wheat : – (a) Punjab (b) Haryana (c) Uttar Pradesh
Minerals and resources
Question. State uses of limestone and largest producer state of lime stone?

Answer : About 75% of limestone is used in the cement industry, rest is used for smelting of iron and in chemical industries

. Leading producer of limestone is Madhya Pradesh.

Question .State any three successful applications of solar energy in our life?

Answer : Successful application of solar energy:-

(i) Cooking (ii) Heating water (iii) Lighting (iv) Cooling purposes.

Question .Write briefly two merits of water as a source of power?

Answer : (i) Pollution free

(ii) Renewable.

Question .Write briefly two merits of water power?

Answer : (i) Available in plenty (ii) Pollution free (iii) Cheap (iv) Less maintenance cost.

Question .Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Answer : (i) India lies in the tropical zone and thus has enough scope for the production and utilization of solar energy.

(ii) The non-conventional sources are plenty, renewable, eco-friendly and pollution free.

(iii) Becoming popular in every parts of the country and can be used for cooking, lighting, pumping, heating water and cooling.
Question. Describe the distribution of iron ore in India?

Answer : (i) Magnetite and haematite are found in Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra and Rajasthan.

(ii) Most of them comes from Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Goa and Karnataka.

(iii) Some major mines are:-

(a) Singhbhum in Jharkhand

(b) Durg and Dantewara in Chhatisgarh

(c) Koenjhar and Mayurbhanj in Orissa

(d) Nort Goa in Goa (e) Bellary in Karnataka.

Question .. Describe the distribution of coal in India?

Answer : (i) Anthracite is found in Jammu and Kashmir

(ii) Bituminus is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhatisgarh and Madhya Pradesh

(iii) Lignite is found in Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.

Question .. How will you use and conserve energy efficiently?

Answer : To conserve energy we should:-

(i) use public transport system as far as possible.

(ii) Switch off electricity if not required.

(iii) use power saving devices.

(iv) regularly check our power equipments.

(v) emphasise on greater use of conventional sources of energy.

Question .. Describe any two facts regarding the importance of manganese in our daily life. Also name the four states which are known for its production?

Answer : Use of manganese:-

(i) for making iron and steel

(ii) for preparing alloys

(iii) to manufacture bleaching powder, insecticides, paints and batteries.

Producing states of manganese:-

(i) Karnataka (ii) Orissa (iii) Madhya Pradesh

(iv) Maharastra.
Manufacturing Industries
Question . Give an account of the sugar industry in India? Answer : This industry is based on sugarcane which is heavy, weight losing and perishable. Hence the mills are located very close to the sugarcane producing areas. 50% of sugar mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Maharastra.

Question . Most of the cotton textile mills located in Maharastra and Gujarat. Why?

Answer : (i) Availability of raw material i.e. cotton.(ii) Labour is available in plenty.(iii) Power plants are available in plenty.(iv) Market is also available.

Question .Account for the synthetic fibres under the headings?

(i) Raw material(ii) Advantage(iii) Distribution.

Answer : (i) Raw materials : – wood pulp, coal and petroleum.(ii) Advantage : – finishing is better, durable, strength. (iii) Distribution : – West Bengal, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat.

Question . State the importance and distribution of the Aluminium industries?

Answer: In India Aluminium smelting is the second largest industry. It is flexible, good conductor of heat and electricity and hence is universally accepted metal for a large number of industries. It is widely used as a substitute of copper, zinc, lead and steel.

Distribution : – Eight (8) industrial plants are located in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra, Orissa, Chhatisgarh, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

Question .Why is iron & steel industry called a heavy and basic industry? Give two reasons for each?

Answer :Heavy Industry : – The raw materials iron ore, limestone etc are heavy. The finished product are also heavy.

Basic Industry : – All industries depend on it for machines.

Question .Why have most of the iron and steel plants been set up in the Public Sector? Explain four reasons?

Answer :Iron and steel plants requires huge capital investments and the yield or profit take a long time. No large number of labours are required.
Lifelines of nation
Question. Explain why the means of transport and communication are called lifelines of our national economy?

Ans: Efficient means of transport and communication has converted the world into a large village.

a. Through transport and communication we are well-linked with the rest of the world

b. India is united despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.

c. Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have been contributing to India’s socio-economic progress in many ways.

d. The trades from local to international levels have added to the strength of our economy.

e. It has enriched our life and added amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.

Explain why a dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a pre-requisite for local, national and global trade of today.

a. They help in increasing cooperation and assistance between countries by easy movement of goods and material between countries.

b. They help in trade and commerce within country. c. They have reduced distances thus bringing the world closer. d. They help in both production and distribution of goods and movement of large number of people and over long distance.

e. They provide important links between producers and consumers of goods.
Question Why the importance of road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is growing in India?

Ans: In India, roadways have preceded railways. The growing importance of road transport is due to the following reasons –

i. Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,

ii. Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography, R

iii. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas, iv. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,

v. It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,

vi. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
Question. State any four problems of Road transport in the country. Ans. Major Problems are:

i. Road transportation in India is inadequate keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers.

ii. About half of the roads are un-metal and this limits their usage during the rainy season.

iii. The National Highways are inadequate too.

iv. Moreover, the roadways are highly congested in cities

v. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow. Question. Describe the importance of Railways in India. Ans. Indian Railways has been

i. The principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.

ii. Suitable for long distance travel. iii. Conduct of multiple activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods.

iv. Plays an important role of national integration. v. Bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.

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