Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 1 (The Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
Q1-What steps French revolutionaries took to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Ans- The steps taken by French revolutionaries were:
- Promoting the Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) for a unified community
- A new French flag
- The Estates-General was renamed by active citizens ‘ the National Assembly’
- A central administrative system for the entire nation
- Discouraging regional dialects to promote French as the national language.
Q2- What does the crown on allegory of ‘Germania’ signify?
Ans- The crown on allegory of ‘Germania’ signifies Heroism.
Q3- Who was the architect of Germany’s unification?
Ans- The architect of Germany was Otto Von Bismarck
Q4- Briefly explain the process of German unification
Ans- The process was:
- The process of German unification was continued by Prussia after liberals and middle-class Germans were defeated by aristocrats and military.
- Its chief minister Otto von Bismarck carried out the process and he got help from the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Prussia fought three wars with Austria, Denmark, and France
- These wars resulted in Prussian victory as well as German unification
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 2 (Nationalism in India)
Q1- Describe in detail the famous incidence of Jallianwala Bagh.
Ans- Check the major points below:
- Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place on 13 April
- On that particular day, a crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar for attending a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh
- As they were outside the city, they were not aware of the martial law that had been imposed
- General Dyer entered the area. He blocked the exit points, and openly fired on the crowd, killing hundreds.
Q2- What the idea of Satyagraha means?
Ans- The idea of satyagraha is a unique method that emphasizes the power of truth. It is about non-violent agitation.
Q3- Why did the political leaders differ over the question of separate electorates?
Ans- Political leaders held different opinions over the question of separate electorates because of the differences in their opinion. They all believed in the different outcomes of separate electorates. The leaders supporting the minorities and the Dalits believed that it was only political empowerment that would abolish social backwardness, while others like Gandhiji thought that separate electorates would slow down the process of integration.
Q4- What made Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation movement?
Ans- Including many incidents, it was mainly due to Chauri Chaura in 1922, which made Gandhiji withdrew Non- Cooperation movement.
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 3 -Livelihoods, Economies, and Societies (The Making of a Global World)
Q1- Why Europeans were fleeing to America in the nineteenth century? Explain.
Ans- The Europeans were fleeing to America because:
- European cities were crowded and deadly diseases were spreading all over
- Poverty and hunger were common in most of the countries in Europe
- Religious dissenters were persecuted and religious conflicts were common
Q2- What is the meaning of the Bretton Woods Agreement?
Ans- The Bretton Woods Agreement established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank for preserving global economic stability and employment in the industrial world. The agreement was finalised in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
Q3- Mention two examples from history that show the impact of technology on food availability.
Ans- The two examples that showed the impact of technology on food availability are:
- Lighter wagons, faster railways, and ships helped in the transportation of food more cheaply and quickly
- Refrigerated ships helped in the transportation of perishable foods
Q4- What were the causes of the Great Depression.
Ans- Few causes of the Great Depression were:
- Post world war, the global economy was weak
- Most of the European countries took loans from the US. When the number of loans was decreased, the countries which were economically dependent on US loans faced an acute crisis
- Agricultural over-production which was not compatible to demand in the market
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 4 (The Age of Industrialisation)
Q1- Why were merchants moving to the countryside in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Explain.
Ans- The reasons were:
- The world trade was expanding and the acquisition of
- It was getting difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they were turning to the countryside.
- Producers were regulating the prices, production, competition.
Note- Explain these points in detail.
Q2- Explain what is Proto- industrialisation.
Ans- Proto-industrialisation is the phase in which industrialisation was not based on the factory system. Before the factories, there was large-scale industrial production for International markets. This industrial history part is known as Proto- industrialisation.
Q3- Why industrial production in India increased during the First World War?
Ans- It increased because:
- British mills were busy due to war needs
- Due to high demand, the new factories had to be set up while old ones ran on multiple shifts
- Industrial production was booming in India. The new workers were employed and there were long working hours
Q4- In what way did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Ans- The points are given below:
- The East India Company established political power
- Their actions were to eliminate the competition from other colonial powers. They controlled the costs and ensured regular supplies of cotton and silk goods for Britain
- Appointment of gomasthas or paid servants for supervising weavers, collect supplies and to examine the textile quality
- Company weavers were not allowed to deal with other buyers
Important Questions & Answers of Chapter 5 (Print Culture and the Modern World)
Q1- Explain the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth-century India?
Ans- The poor people were benefiting from the spread of print culture in India due to the availability of low-price books and public libraries which were spreading awareness and educating them.
Q2- Explain in brief how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.
Ans- Print culture contributed to the growth of nationalism in India by providing access to nationalist ideals. It promoted the ideas of freedom and equality to the masses.
Q3- Why people in eighteenth-century Europe thought that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
Ans- The easy and cheap availability of the print culture meant that literacy would no longer be restricted to the upper classes and can be accessed by anyone.
Q4- Why some of the people feared the effect of easily available printed books?
Ans- Some people were fearing that their power and authority would get eroded if ideas questioning their power gained mass popularity. The availability of the printed books made people more aware and made them question the authority.
- Important Question & Answers of History Chapter 5 (Print Culture and the Modern World)
Q1- Why the effect of easily available printed books feared some people?
Ans- The availability of the printed books feared some of the people because they were worried about the consciousness and enlightenment that the print culture will bring among the people. The voice of reason will rise giving way to the social reforms.
Q2- Discuss the way in which the print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.
Ans- The growth of nationalism in India was assisted by the print culture as it gave easy access to nationalist ideas. The idea of freedom was communicated to the masses. Social reformers started putting their views through newspapers and encouraged the idea of public debates and struggle.
Q3- In what way the spreading of print culture of India in nineteenth-century affected women?
Ans- There were major educational reforms in India for women due to the print culture. Women were encouraged to be educated by their liberal husbands and fathers at home. Some even sent women to school. They also began to write in journals or newspapers.
Q4- Why Gandhiji said that the fight for Swaraj is a fight for the liberty of the press,liberty of speech and freedom of association?
Ans- Gandhi believed that the fight for Swaraj is a fight for the liberty of the press, liberty of speech and freedom of association because he considered them to be the powerful mode of expression. These forms of freedom were important for self-rule and independence.
Q5- Why Martin Luther was in favour of print and why he spoke out in praise of it.
Ans- Martin Luther spoke in favour of print and praised it because print media gave him a platform of spreading his ideas and popularizing it.
Q6- How the poor were impacted with the spread of print culture in the nineteenth century?
Ans- The poor were benefitted from the spread of print culture in India because it made the low priced books available, there were also libraries with the essays and books which talked about caste discrimination and social injustices.
Q7- Why some people in eighteenth-century Europe thought that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
Ans- Some people in eighteenth-century thought that the print culture will bring enlightenment and end despotism because the easy availability of literacy will mean that it is not only limited to the upper class. They feared the awareness and questioning that will rise against the set ideologies.
Q8- Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.
Ans- Woodblock print was invented in China around the sixth century. In 1295, Woodblock print came to Europe with Marco Polo. He travelled to Italy after many years of exploration in China and brought the knowledge of woodblock print with him on his return.
Q9- What was The Vernacular Press Act?
Ans- The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878. With this law, the government got the tyrannical rights to censor editorials in the vernacular press. In case a seditious report was published and the newspaper did not pay attention to an initial warning, then the press was seized. This law was an example of a violation of the freedom of expression.
Q10- Write a short note on The Gutenberg Press.
Ans- Johann Gutenberg established The Gutenberg Press. By 1448, Gutenberg had perfected the printing system with olive and wine presses while also using contemporary technological innovations. Bible was the first book that he printed and made 180 copies in 3 years. The Gutenberg Press was the first-ever known printing press in the 1430s.